Tarantula venom illuminates electrical activity in live neurons for the first time.

Tarantula venom illuminates electrical activity in live neurons for the first time. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/1opIm8q

Tarantula venom illuminates electrical activity in live cells - neuroinnovations

Researchers at the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Marine Biological Laboratory, have created a cellular probe that combines a tarantula toxin with a fluorescent compound to help scientists observe electrical activity in neurons and other cells. The probe binds to a voltage-activated potassium ion channel subtype, lighting up when the channel is turned off and…

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Rapid-acting agent restores pleasure-seeking in bipolar neuroimaging trial participants.

Rapid-acting agent restores pleasure-seeking in bipolar neuroimaging trial participants. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/1t3MwDd

featured image  - Rapid agent restores pleasure-seeking ahead of other antidepressant action - neuroinnovations

A drug being studied as a fast-acting mood-lifter restored pleasure-seeking behaviour independent of, and ahead of, its other antidepressant effects, in a National Institutes of Health trial. Within 40 minutes after a single infusion of ketamine, treatment-resistant depressed bipolar disorder patients experienced a reversal of a key symptom, loss of interest in pleasurable activities, which…

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Scientists discover how bacteria grows directly in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.

Scientists discover how bacteria grows directly in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/1sGjdVz

Coloured chest X-ray (front view) showing mucus in the lungs in a 15 year old female patient with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is a hereditary disease affecting the lungs in which abnormal production of mucus can lead to severe respiratory infection.  Credit: PHOTOSTOCK-ISRAEL/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY.

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have shown for the first time how bacteria can grow directly in the lungs of Cystic fibrosis patients, giving them the opportunity to get tremendous insights into bacteria behaviour and growth in chronic infections.

The study also discovered the bacterial growth in chronic lung infections among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was halted or slowed down…

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Geneticists ‘date’ genetic variation associated with autism.

Geneticists ‘date’ genetic variation associated with autism. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/10d5CM5

Gene Duplications Associated with Autism Evolved Recently in Human History - neuroinnovations

Human geneticists have discovered that a region of the genome associated with autism contains genetic variation that evolved in the last 250,000 years, after the divergence of humans from ancient hominids, and likely plays an important role in disease. Their findings were presented at the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) Annual Meeting.

Researchers at the University of…

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Scientists identify trigger for crucial immune system cell.

Scientists identify trigger for crucial immune system cell. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/1rIdcUr

featured image- Scripps Research Institute Scientists Identify Trigger for Crucial Immune System Cell  - healthinnovations

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), Brigham Young University,  La Jolla Institute and the University of Chicago have identified the long-sought activating molecules for a rare but crucial subset of immune system cells that help rally other white blood cells to fight infection.  In the process, the team also uncovered a previously unsuspected link between the mammalian immune…

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Breakthrough as team discover stem cells in the oesophagus.

Breakthrough as team discover stem cells in the oesophagus. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/1pk5HmI

Because the esophageal epithelium lacks a defined stem cell niche, it is unclear whether all basal epithelial cells in the adult esophagus are functionally equivalent. In this study, we showed that basal cells in the mouse esophagus contained a heterogeneous population of epithelial cells, similar to other rapidly cycling tissues such as the intestine or skin. Using a combination of cell-surface markers, we separated primary esophageal tissue into distinct cell populations that harbored differences in stem cell potential. We also used an in vitro 3D organoid assay to demonstrate that Sox2, Wnt, and bone morphogenetic protein signaling regulate esophageal self-renewal. Finally, we labeled proliferating basal epithelial cells in vivo to show differing cell-cycle profiles and proliferation kinetics. Based on our results, we propose that a nonquiescent stem cell population resides in the basal epithelium of the mouse esophagus.  Cellular Heterogeneity in the Mouse Esophagus Implicates the Presence of a Nonquiescent Epithelial Stem Cell Population.  Lagasse et al 2014.

Despite previous indications to the contrary, the oesophagus does have its own pool of stem cells, said researchers from the University of Pittsburgh in an opensource animal study published in Cell Reports. The findings could lead to new insights into the development and treatment of esophageal cancer and the precancerous condition known as Barrett’s oesophagus.

According to the American Cancer…

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Researchers reach ‘paradigm shift’ in understanding potassium channels.

Researchers reach ‘paradigm shift’ in understanding potassium channels. Thoughts health innovators?

featured-image- Researchers reach 'paradigm shift' in understanding potassium channels - neuroinnovations

A new discovery relating to one of the most common processes in human cells is being described as a ‘paradigm shift’ in understanding.  Researchers at the University of Dundee, the Max Planck Institute, the University of Göttingen and the University of Oxford have observed ion permeation in potassium channels which does not follow previously predicted pathways.  They have published the results of…

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Researchers discover inter- and intraspecies of Staph ‘gangs’ share nutrients during infection.

Researchers observe inter- and intraspecies of Staph ‘gangs’ share nutrients during infection. Thoughts health innovations? http://bit.ly/1FaSxTb

Adaptations that enable antimicrobial resistance often pose a fitness cost to the microorganism. Resistant pathogens must therefore overcome such fitness decreases to persist within their hosts. Here we demonstrate that the reduced fitness associated with one resistance-conferring mutation can be offset by community interactions with microorganisms harboring alternative mutations or via interactions with the human microbiota. Mutations that confer antibiotic resistance in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus led to decreased fitness, whereas coculture or coinfection of two distinct mutants resulted in collective recovery of fitness comparable to that of wild-type. Such fitness enhancements result from the exchange of metabolites between distinct mutants, leading to enhanced growth, virulence factor production, and pathogenicity. Interspecies fitness enhancements were also identified, as members of the human microbiota can promote growth of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. Thus, inter- and intraspecies community interactions offset fitness costs and enable S. aureus to develop antibiotic resistance without loss of virulence.  Inter- and Intraspecies Metabolite Exchange Promotes Virulence of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  Skaar et al 2014.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can share resources to cause chronic infections, Vanderbilt investigators have discovered. Like the individual members of a gang who might be relatively harmless alone, they turn deadly when they get together with their ‘friends.’  The findings, reported in Cell Host & Microbe, shed light on a long-standing question in infectious diseases and may inform new treatment…

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First ever study shows treating sleep apnea reduces cardiac patients hospital readmission.

First ever study shows treating sleep apnea reduces cardiac patients hospital readmission. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/1sWREtv

featured -image - Treating sleep apnea in cardiac patients reduces hospital readmission - healthinnovations

A study of hospitalized cardiac patients is the first to show that effective treatment with positive airway pressure therapy reduces 30-day hospital readmission rates and emergency department visits in patients with both heart disease and sleep apnea. The results underscore the importance of the ‘Stop the Snore‘ campaign of the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project, a collaboration between the…

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Gene variants implicated in ADHD identify attention and language deficits in the general population.

Gene variants implicated in ADHD identify attention and language deficits in the general population. Thoughts health innovators?

Credit:  Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CHeBA) 2014.

A new study from researchers at Cardiff University and the University of Bristol suggests that there is a spectrum of attention, hyperactivity/impulsiveness and language function in society, with varying degrees of these impairments associated with clusters of genes linked with the risk for ADHD.  The opensource study is published in the journal Biological Psychiatry.

The team asked the…

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First report of long-term safety of human embryonic stem cells to treat human disease.

First report of long-term safety of human embryonic stem cells to treat human disease. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/1ruAPj3

Human embryonic stem cells differentiated toward neurons and neural precursors – Staining: Tuj1 [neurons] (Green), Nestin (Red) and Dapi (Blue).  Credit:  Isabel Martin - University of Edinburgh, UK.

A new multi-centre study led by the University of California provides the first evidence of the medium-term to long-term safety and tolerability of transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in humans.  The opensource study is published in The Lancet.

Human embryonic stem cell (hESCs) transplants used to treat severe vision loss in 18 patients with different forms of macular degeneration…

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Researchers discover new type of stem cell.

Researchers discover new type of stem cell. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/1sf2Saa

featured image - Stem Cell Discovery Challenges Dogma on How Fetus Develops; Holds Insights for Liver Cancer and Regeneration - healthinnovations

A Mount Sinai-led research team has discovered a new kind of stem cell that can become either a liver cell or a cell that lines liver blood vessels. The existence of such a cell type contradicts current theory on how organs arise from cell layers in the embryo, and may hold clues to origins of, and future treatment for, liver cancer.  The opensource study is published in the journal Stem Cell…

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Scientists link ALS progression to increased protein instability.

Scientists link ALS progression to increased protein instability. Thoughts health innovators? http://bit.ly/11mBBtv

featured image - Scientists Link ALS Progression to Increased Protein Instability - neuroinnovations

A new study led by scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) suggests a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease.  The work supports a common theme whereby loss of protein stability leads to disease.

The team focused on the effects of mutations to a gene coding for a protein called superoxide dismutase (SOD), report their findings in the Proceed…

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